Table 1

Matching the 13 types of strategy (and individual strategies within these) against types of drivers of UB

Primary driver addressedBehaviour change strategies
Single incidents of UB (individual-level/does not address drivers)Direct or indirect approach to instigator (target, bystander or managers)—used in 14 out of 29 evaluated interventions
Informal resolution
Disciplinary action
Peer messengers
Mediation
Speaking up
Workplace disempowerment and staff ability to speak upImproving confidence to come forward (target, bystander)—used in 22 out of 29 evaluated interventions
Assertiveness training
Role playing
Cognitive rehearsal
Keeping records
Improving awareness and knowledge (all)—used in 12 out of 29 evaluated interventions
Education, awareness and general group discussions
Improving social cohesionImproving ability to cope with UB (target, bystander)—used in 0 out of 29 evaluated interventions
Seeking help externally
Journalling
Moving targets
Individual coping strategies
Reflection
Improving teamwork (all)—used in 16 out of 29 evaluated interventions
Teambuilding exercises
Conflict management training
Communication training
Journal club/group writing
Problem-based learning
Staff networks
Addressing harmful cultures and workplace processesSocial norm-setting (all)—used in 16 out of 29 evaluated interventions
Championing
Code of conduct
Role modelling
Environmental modification
Allyship
Improving leadership competence and empathy (managers/leaders)—used in 2 out of 29 evaluated interventions
Leadership training
Reverse mentoring
Reporting and escalation systems (all)—used in 7 out of 29 evaluated interventions
Reporting system
Changing recruitment processes (all)—used in 0 out of 29 evaluated interventions
Changing recruitment criteria
Dismissal
Workplace redesign (all)—used in 1 out of 29 evaluated interventions
Democratisation of workplace
Improving manager awareness and urgency to address UBExternal accreditation or pressure on organisations (managers/leaders)—used in 2 out of 29 evaluated interventions
Seeking hospital Magnet status
Regulator action
Laws and regulations
Understanding prevalence of UB (managers/leaders)—used in 3 out of 29 evaluated interventions
Survey
Multisource feedback
Implementation-aiding strategies (managers/leaders)—used in 11 out of 29 evaluated interventions
Action planning or goal setting
Building a repertoire of strategies
  • UB, unprofessional behaviour.