Table 1

Baseline demographic and disease characteristics among participants (n=258)

Variables
Age (years)61.5(13.3)
BMI, kg/m225.6(3.7)
mCCI2.4(1.7)
Males, n (%)119(46)
Duration of symptoms (years) before surgery2.7(3.2)
Analgesics use before study, n (%)176(68)
ODI40.5(18.2)
Diagnosis, n (%)
 Spondylolisthesis129(62)
 Disc herniation88(42)
 Spondylotic stenosis129(62)
  • Data are mean (SD) unless indicated.

  • BMI, body mass index; mCCI, modified Charlson Comorbidity Index; ODI, Oswestry Disability Index.