Table 1

Studies on the concept of patient safety in home care, attributes, antecedents and consequences

ReferencesCountryStudied contextAttributeAntecedentConsequence
Lang et al 32 CanadaDiscovering a broad perspective of patient safety in home careEfforts to reduce and avoid errors and risks
Management of unsafe actions
Inseparable relationship between the client/family and caregivers/service provider
Multidimensionality of safety (physical, emotional, social, functional)
Need for human resource competence
Patient and caregiver adherence to patient safety
Fitting organisational safety culture
Providing infrastructure for safety indicators
Protection and reducing risks
Providing a safe environment for the patient
Improving the quality of home care
Empowering the patient
Receiving positive feedback from patients and caregivers
Gershon et al 26 USARisks of home careComplexity of multiple and potential safety threats
Multiple sources of potential home hazards for patients and healthcare workers
Control and elimination of known hazards to achieve an acceptable level of safety for the patient and health staff
Attributes of the organisation (safety training)
Attributes of home (environmental hazards)
Personal attributes (patient and health staff)
Controlling and eliminating hazards in homes: achieving the highest safety standards
Maintaining the safety of health workers
Gershon et al 27 USAAssessing the potential health and safety risks associated with home healthcareIdentifying hazards and threats
Training caregivers
Competence of caregivers
Identifying the possibility of danger
Principles of working with patient electrical appliances
Considering the possibility of fire
No slippery carpets
Home hygiene conditions
Non-violence and abuse
Role of technology and equipment in safety
No injury to the patient
Optimum quality of care
Treating the patient nicely
No patient falling
Resolving safety problems
Lang et al 33 CanadaSafety perspectives on home care from the perspective of those involved in care (family, patient, caregiver)Multidimensional safety standards
Complexity of home care safety
Difference in the meaning of safety between the views of the patient, family and service provider
Participatory role of members involved in care
Coordinating the views of the care provider and recipient
Sufficient resources for safety management
Family adherence to safety
Providing safe care
Reducing safety risks and problems
Maintaining the health of the patient
Reducing stress and pressure on patients’ families
Berland et al 25 NorwayCulture of patient safety in home careAccepting patient safety responsibility in different situations
Identifying higher hazards and alerts
Safety culture
Work spirit and ethics
Functional leadership
Principles of working with equipment
Competence of caregivers
Providing facilities
Assurance of safety
Gershon et al 28 USADevelop a checklist on patient safety in home careContinuous identification and review of environmental conditions and hazards in the homeKnowledge of identifying environmental risk factors
High cost to eliminate environmental hazards
Providing a safe environmental condition for the patient
Improving safety
Berland et al29 NorwayPatient safety from the perspective of home care nursesPaying attention to primary prevention and investigating the causes of the accident before it occurs
Focusing on prevention
Nurses’ concern for safety
Preventing the patient from falling
Tong et al 37 CanadaPatients’ and families’ concerns about safety in home careEfforts by all involved in care to maintain safety
Prevention with timely evaluation and intervention
Participation of all members in safety
Concerns and safety concerns
High cost to eliminate hazards and supply equipment
Turning the house into a place of safe long-term care
Increasing the ability of the family and the patient
Reducing the pressure on caregivers
Carpenter et al 31 USAPatient safety in home careMultidimensional safety
Physical safety
Emotional safety
Social safety
Functional safety
Commitment to safety principles
Controlling environmental hazards
Centre and insurance support
Proper use of technology and equipment
Observance of relevant regulations and standards
Implementing a promising approach to patient safety
Promoting safer care
Danielsen et al 34 NorwayExperiences and challenges of nurses and physicians on palliative home careCooperation of all members involved in care
Competence of caregivers
Cooperation and agreement between the nurse and the doctor and the family
Competence of nurses
Clinical specialisation and high experience of the nurse
Ability to prevent and flexibility in the nurse
Adherence to and trust in safety principles
Use of electronic communications
Initial planning and preparation before the patient’s arrival
Easy and fast access to medicine and equipment
Support and interaction between home care and hospital
Receiving complete patient records from the hospital
Quality care
Avoiding hospitalisation
Reducing the burden of caring for the family
Increasing patient safety
Ree and Wiig39 NorwayEmployees’ perception of patient safety culturePatient safety culture: product of values, attitudes, perceptions, competencies and individual and group behavioural patterns determining the commitment, style and skills of managing the safety and health of the organisationAddressing the patient’s safety culture and understanding it
Management support
Organisational Learning
Team work
General understanding of patient safety
Open communication
Higher expectations
Improving patient safety
Reducing mortality
Reducing disability in the patient
Demiris et al 30 USAManaging promotion of patient safety in home careMultidimensional environmental safety at home
Dimensions of patient safety: environmental, emotional, social, functional safety
Patient cooperation
Significant patient and family participation in care
Adherence and implementation of safe care
Complex clinical care planning and coordination
Patient resilience and self-efficacy
Material and spiritual support of family and society
Use of information technology to facilitate safety
Protection of patient safety
Improving healthcare processes
Empowering home care patients and their families in care
Johannessen et al.38 NorwayChallenges of safety in home careCoordination in organisational structure and policies
Safety culture
Competence and participation
Understand the culture of error
Maintaining competence among employees
Knowledge transfer
Changing the views of managers
Role of the organisation
Maintaining the competence of employees
High time and cost
Persistence in safety
Continuity of quality of care
Maintaining patient safety
Reducing the workload of nurses
Increasing the ability of nurses
Stokke et al 36 NorwayProviding remote patient safetyRelationship between care staff, patients and family
Interaction between patient, family and care provider
Efforts and alignment of people involved in technology care
Responsibility in technology
Coordination of activities with technology
Maintaining patient safety
Reducing the pressure on care providers
Mirjam et al 35 SwedenSafety in home careSafety dependence on family and their participation
Family competence
Available resources
Maintaining safety
Empowering families to care