Table 1

Overview of the eight projects

ProjectReduction in the inappropriate use of:SettingProblem analysis data sourceDesignDe-implementation strategyEffect evaluation data sourceProcess evaluation data source
1Inhaled corticosteroids for patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseFive primary care cooperation groups, with a total of five pharmacists and 40 general practicesFocus group interviews with clinicians and patientsA before-and-after study with a national control groupEducation of GPs and pharmacists.
Publications in patient and professional magazines.
Selection of patients whose use of inhaled corticosteroids was potentially unnecessary.
Patient information
National databaseSurvey among clinicians and patients
2Surveillance CT scans for patients cured of lymphomaNine hospitals’ haematology wardsA survey among clinicians and patientsA before-and-after study with a national control groupEducation of haematologists.
Patient information (leaflet).
Presentation at a patient association conference
National databaseSurvey among clinicians
3Knee arthroscopies and MRIs for orthopaedic patients aged 50 years or olderThirteen orthopaedic centresInterviews and surveys among clinicians and patientsA difference-in-difference design with a national control groupAppointing clinical champions.
Education of orthopaedic specialists.
Patient information (leaflet).
National databaseSurvey among clinicians
4Intravenous and urinary cathetersSeven hospitals’ internal medicine and non-surgical subspecialty wardsA survey among patients and observations in clinical practiceA before-after study with an interrupted time series analysisAppointing clinical champions.
Education of physicians and nurses.
Use of educational materials (poster, pocket card).
Patient information (leaflets).
Competitive feedback.
Changes in the structure of medical records
Patients’ medical recordsObservations in clinical practice
5Vitamins D and B12 testsTwenty-six primary care health centres, with a total of 158 general practitionersExperience from an earlier pilot studyCluster randomised study comparing two interventionsEducation of GPs and feedback in intervention groups A and B.
Patient information (leaflet, video clip and poster) in intervention group B only
Regional databaseInterviews with clinicians and patients
6Diagnostic laboratory testsFour hospitals’ internal medicine wardsExperience from an earlier pilot study and a survey among cliniciansA before-after study with an interrupted time series analysis and a control group of 19 hospitalsConferences for physicians.
Increased supervision of residents.
Education of physicians.
Changes in the ordering system
Hospital registriesSurvey among clinicians
7Surveillance visits for patients cured for basal cell carcinomaThree hospitals’ dermatology wardsInterviews and focus group interviews with clinicians and patientsAn uncontrolled before-and-after studyPersonalised patient informationA survey among patientsInterviews with clinicians and patients
8Upper gastrointestinal endoscopies for dyspeptic patientsFour hospitals’ gastroenterology wardsFocus group interviews with clinicians and patientsA randomised controlled trialInteractive e-learning for patientsPatients’ medical recordsA survey among patients