Table 2

Components of quality improvement interventions and their definitions12 16

Methods for implementing QI interventionsDefinition
ChecklistA checklist is used as part of the quality improvement intervention
Clinical guidelineThe word ‘guideline’ is mentioned in the intervention section, and the context implies that guidelines are used to implement the intervention.
Standardisation of care processesThe word ‘standardisation’ or similar wording (such as ‘standard’, ‘standardised’) is mentioned in the intervention section, and the context implies that guidelines are used to implement the intervention.
Provider reminder systemsA technique used to remind the healthcare provider to do something, such as sticky notes, posters or electronic alerts
Caregiver remindersA technique used to remind the caregiver to do something
Facilitated relay of clinical data to providersThe quality improvement strategy involves implementing systems to communicate (relay) patient data to the healthcare provider
Provider educationEducation and training for healthcare providers and staff
Caregiver educationEducation and training for caregivers
Promotion of self-management (caregiver)QI strategies that involve helping caregivers to manage their conditions
Financial, regulatory, or legislative incentivesCash transfers, reimbursements, etc, as a quality improvement strategy
Audit and feedback, feedback, and benchmarkingAny mention of the word ‘feedback’, ‘audit’, ‘audit and feedback’ and ‘benchmarking’ in the context of implementing the intervention.
Personnel change and adding new roles/members or changing existing rolesThe QI strategy involves adding new members to a team or fundamentally changing the roles of the members of a team as a quality improvement strategy. Forming a quality improvement team is not in itself a QI strategy.
Communication change (as intervention strategy) (and teamwork training/simulations)Team huddles, teamwork activity, simulation (involving communication), communication between multiple hospitals, as well as emphasis on communication techniques (debriefing, etc), and communication strategies when describing the quality improvement intervention.
QI methods (PDSA, Six Sigma, TQM, CQI, CRM, Lean)The techniques listed here were used in implementing the intervention, as well as the use of any other formal strategies.
New devices, equipment, technology The implementation itself involves the use of new devices, equipment and technology as a quality improvement strategy. Using devices, equipment or technology that is already available in the hospital does not count.
  • CQI, Continuous Quality Improvement; CRM, Crew Resource Management; PDSA, Plan-Do-Study-Act; QI, quality improvement; TQM, Total Quality Management.