Table 1

Documented patient characteristics in the previous studies describing preoperative risk factors for surgical complications

ReferenceASAAgeSexBMIAlcoholSmokingNutritional statusFunctional statusSymptoms/morbidities/medical signsType of surgeryCategory of surgery
Khuri et al12IncreasingIncreasingNRNRNRNRRecent weight lossIndependent/dependentAlbumin, cancer, ascites, BUN, plateletsEmergencyComplexity score,* subspecialty
Daley et al13IncreasingIncreasingNRNRNRNRNRIndependent/dependentAlbumin, hematocrite, WBC, COPD, TIA, AFOS, plateletsEmergencyComplexity score*, subspecialty
Anderson et al11Increasing ASAIncreasing ageNRNRNRNRNRFunctional status (ACS-NSQUIP grading)Albumin, hematocrite, INR, BUN, ALP, ASTEmergencyNR
Veltkamp et al14ASA 2–5Over 40 yearsMale>27.3NRYes>10 kg weight loss for 3 monthsIndependent/dependentCardiac/pulmonary disease, HT, DM, renal failure, immunological disorderUrgent/emergencyCentral part of body surgery/major
Dimick et al10Increasing ASANRNRYesNRNRRecent weight lossIndependent/dependentDiabetes, HT, dyspnoea, albumin, CHF, dialysisEmergencyNR
Donati et al15Increasing ASAIncreasing ageMaleNRNRNRNRNRAnaemia, NYHA 3–4, HT, diabetesEmergency/urgentIncreasing severity (major)
Wolters et al19Increasing ASANo differenceNoNRNRHistory of smokingNRIndependent/dependentSepsisEmergencySeverity of operation
Kable et al18NR>70 years,
NoNRPredictive for arthroplasty complicationsNRNRNRAnaemia, asthma, cancer, osteoporosis, angina, warfarin-type medication, low albuminAcute admissionType and severity of operation
Robinson et al20NRAll >65 yearsNo (98% male)NRNRNRAlbumin <3.4 g/dLKatz Score and >1 falls within 6 months (frailty)Charlson Index score >3, anaemia, hypoalbuminaemiaNRNR
Turrentine et al16Increasing ASAIncreasing ageMaleYesNRcurrent smokerRecent weight lossImpairment of ADLsHT, sepsis, steroids, DM, varices, CHF, ascites, bleeding disorderEmergency operationRVU, physician work relative unit
Glasgow et al17ASA 2–4Increasing age after 41 yearsNo<18.5 and >35.0NRcurrent smokerBMI <18.5Partially/totally dependentHT, COPD, steroids, cancer, vascular disease, CHF, bleeding disorderInpatientRVU
  • *Complexity score of each index operation ranked by groups of subspecialists.

  • ACS-NSQUIP, American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program; ADLs, activities of daily living; ALP, alkaline phosphatase; ASA, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification System; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; CHF, congestive heart failure; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; HT, hypertension; INR, international normalised ratio (blood clotting); NR, not reported; NYHA, New York Heart Association (functional classification of heart failure); RVU, relative value unit by Medicare; TIA, transient ischaemic attack; WBC, white blood cell count.