Table 2

Modified Clavien-Dindo classification for postoperative complications

GradesDefinition
Grade 1Any deviation from the normal postoperative course without the need for pharmacological treatment or surgical, endoscopic and radiological interventions
Allowed therapeutic regimens: drugs as antiemetics, antipyretics, analgetics, diuretics and electrolytes and physiotherapy. This grade also includes wound infections opened at the bedside.
Grade 2Requiring pharmacological treatment with drugs other than such allowed for grade 1 complications
Blood transfusions and total parenteral nutrition were also included.
Grade 3Requiring surgical, endoscopic or radiological intervention not under general anaesthesia
Grade 4Intervention under general anaesthesia
Grade 5Life-threatening complication (including CNS complications)* requiring IC/ICU management, single-organ dysfunction (including dialysis)
Grade 6Life-threatening complication (including CNS complications)* requiring IC/ICU management, multiorgan dysfunction
Grade 7Death of a patient
Grade 8Complication at discharge, category cannot be defined (ie, recurrent nerve paralysis after thyroid surgery)
Grade 9Other (ie, wrong medication, postponement/cancellation of surgery)
  • CNS, central nervous system; IC, intensive care; ICU, intensive care unit.