Table 1

The simulation scenario considered in this paper

  • Eighty providers.

Embedded Imagetakes the value4080160320640
With probability0.350.300.200.100.05
  • Embedded Imageis drawn from a normal distribution with mean 8% and SD 3%. This implies that two-thirds of the providers have a true value Embedded Image between 5% and 11%; Embedded Image and Embedded Image are drawn independently.

  • The threshold Δ* is set to 2 percentage points.

  • Simulations are always based on 10 000 repetitions. Details about the statistical computations are provided in the online supplemental material.