Table 1

Clinical measures before and after guideline introduction

FeatureBefore guidelinesAfter guidelines
Case numbersCases%5%–95% CICase numbersCases%5%–95% CI
Entire population
Any abnormality15 639224814.413.8 to 14.917 033203712.011.5 to 12.5
Acidosis11647.47.0 to 7.98134.8*4.5 to 5.1
Hyponatraemia1551.01.0 to 1.31851.10.9 to 1.3
Hypernatraemia1460.90.9 to 1.31120.70.7 to 1.0
Hypokalaemia5373.43.6 to 4.35423.23.6 to 4.3
Hyperkalaemia2461.61.6 to 2.13852.3*2.6 to 3.2
Mortality13 59213119.69.2 to 10.013 14412619.69.1 to 10.1
Length of stay (mean)7.79.2
AKI10 54112 862
 Stage 17076.76.2 to 7.211609.0*8.5 to 9.5
 Stage 21511.41.2 to 1.73082.4*2.1 to 2.7
 Stage 31511.41.2 to 1.72562.01.8 to 2.3
Emergency patients (medical, general and orthopaedic surgery)
Any abnormality10 701186717.416.7 to 18.212 757169013.212.7 to 13.8
Acidosis9238.68.1 to 9.26535.14.8 to 5.5
Hyponatraemia1261.21 to 1.41321.00.8 to 1.2
Hypernatraemia1431.31.1 to 1.61100.90.7 to 1.0
Hypokalaemia4874.64.2 to 5.05104.03.7 to 4.4
Hyperkalaemia1881.81.5 to 2.02852.22.0 to 2.5
Mortality8654128814.914.1 to 15.68868123413.913.2 to 14.7
Length of stay (mean)8.97.8
AKI68738868
 Stage 15147.56.9 to 8.18079.18.5 to 9.7
 Stage 21161.71.4 to 2.02092.42.1 to 2.7
 Stage 31462.11.8 to 2.52232.52.2 to 2.9
Elective patients (general and orthopaedic surgery)
Any abnormality49383817.77.0 to 8.542763478.17.3 to 9.0
Acidosis2414.94.3 to 5.51603.73.2 to 4.4
Hyponatraemia290.10 to 0.1531.20.9 to 1.6
Hypernatraemia30.020.00 to 0.2
Hypokalaemia501.00.8 to 1.3320.70.5 to 1.1
Hyperkalaemia581.21.0 to 1.51002.31.9 to 2.8
Mortality4938230.50.3 to 0.74276270.60.4 to 0.9
Length of stay (mean)4.34.4
AKI36683994
 Stage 11935.34.6 to 6.03534.03.6 to 4.4
 Stage 2350.90.6 to 1.3991.10.9 to 1.4
 Stage 350.10 to 0.3330.40.3 to 0.5
  • *For the entire population, significant change, p<0.0002. Statistical analysis of differences in the subgroups was not carried out.

  • AKI, acute kidney injury.