Table 1

Awake fibreoptic intubation simulation data

Preintervention (n=20)Postintervention (n=20)
Total process steps: mean 24, range 13–40Total process steps: mean 13, range 13–13
Common process stepsTimeProtocol process stepsTimeP value
1Walk to get protocol00:00:381Walk to presurgical area core00:00:25
2Retrieve protocol00:01:182Collect kit in pre-surgical core00:00:07
3Walk and retrieve dexmedetomidine00:00:493Collect lidocaine00:00:15
4Walk to get presurgical area equipment and medications00:03:054Walk to operating room core00:00:29
5Collect presurgical area equipment and medications00:01:065Collect infusion pump00:00:15
6Setup presurgical area equipment00:05:536Walk to airway storage area00:00:20
7Walk to get operating room equipment and medications00:02:377Collect fibreoptic tower00:00:09
8Collect operating room equipment and medications00:00:388Walk to operating room00:00:31
9Set up operating room equipment and medications00:07:209Set up equipment00:05:22
10Walk to operating room pharmacy00:00:16
11Collect dexmedetomidine00:00:04
12Walk to operating room00:00:18
13Set up dexmedetomidine infusion00:02:27
Mean setup time23.4±6.2 minMean setup time11.0±2.1 min<0.001
Mean non-value added time10.2±3.6 minMean non-value added time3.2±0.6 min<0.001
Mean value added-time13.2±4.0 minMean value added-time7.8±2.0 min<0.001
  • Many different process steps were observed in the preintervention simulations. Nine common process steps were identified from an overall average of 24 process steps and used to summarise the data. The process steps in the postintervention simulations correlated to the technician instruction sheet. Non-value added time encompassed walking and collecting equipment whereas value added time involved setting up equipment