Table 1

Aim categorisation and key characteristics of QI studies

QI studyAim categorisation
QI study
time frame (months)
Health outcomes measuredCost
discussed or quantified
Alexander et al26TE2LeanPre–post15++
Brown et al27TE1E2VLSSTime series20++
Clark et al28S1TE1E2PPre–post24++
Collins and Hegarty29SE2LSSPre–post+
Conaty et al30S1TE1E2MFI PDSATime series8+
Creed et al32E2LSS DMAICPre–post26+
Davies et al33TE2PS2VLSS DMAICPre–post10+
Dolan et al34PPre–post12–24+
Dymond et al35S1TE1Time series24
HSE QID37S1E1PMFITime series48++
HSE QID38E1MFI PDSAPre–post*12
HSE VIU (unpublished)†S1TE1E2VPDSATime series24+
Irwin et al39S1E1Pre–post4+
Kieran et al40S1E2LSSPre–post16+
Kilonzo et al41E1PPre–post24+
Lagan et al42TE1E2PPDSAPre–post*48+
Linehan et al43TE1Pre–post36++
McCarthy et al44S1E1E2Time series18
McGlacken-Byrne et al45S1E1PPDSATime series2+
McGrath et al46TE1E2PDSATime series18++
McGrath et al47TE1E2S2LSSPre–post12+
McNamara et al48S1E1VMFI PDSAPre–post*12+
Medani et al49E1Pre–post6
Meehan et al50S1TE2VPost-only12++
Moran et al51E2VPCG4+
Moran et al52S1PDSAPre–post*7
Murphy et al53TE2PMFI PDSATime series18
Murray et al54E1PDSAPre–post18
O’Hanlon et al55S1TE1PDSAPre–post*21+
O'Reilly et al56S1TE1E2VTime series+
Osuafor et al57E1PPDSAPre–post+
Owen et al58S1E1E2Pre–post3
Owens et al59S1TE1Pre–post1.1
Riordan et al60E1Time series12×4+
Ryan et al61TE2VLSSPre–post*22+
Stewart et al62E1PARPCG*10
Tangney (unpublished)‡E1E2PVPre–post24+
Teeling et al63TE1E2PLSS PDSAPre–post6++
Ullah et al64TE2LeanPre–post7+
White et al65TE2PS2LeanPCG*15
White et al66S2LeanPCG+pre–post15
  • ‘+’ indicates reported; ‘−’ indicates not reported.

  • *Includes time series data.

  • †HSE Value Improvement Unit. An evaluation of the collaborative project with RCSI on the development of a Theatre Quality Improvement Programme (TQIP) and the Integrated Care Programme for Patient Flow, Clinical Strategy and Programmes Division (CPSD). Ireland: HSE; 2019.

  • ‡Tangney K. Theatre Quality Improvement Programme. End of Year (2018) Evaluation Report. Ireland: RCSI; 2019.

  • AR, Action Research; DMAIC, Define Measure Analyse Improve Control; E1, effectiveness; E2, efficiency; E3, equity; LSS, Lean Six Sigma; MFI, Model for Improvement; P, patient-centredness; PCG, parallel control group; PDSA, Plan-Do-Study-Act; QI, quality improvement; S1, safety; S2, staff well-being; T, timeliness; V, value for money.