Table 3

Hospital-wide results of patient safety climate survey in healthcare personnel

2012201620172019Z-statistic*P value
Participation in survey
 Number participated3179754668137791
 Number invited12 22712 78913 63614 253
 Per cent participation26585055−52.09<0.0001
Per cent positive responses†
 Aggregate culture of safety (%)65717274−9.19<0.0001
 Domain: own unit (%)73777880−8.04<0.0001
 Domain: supervisor of own unit (%)67717274−11.1<0.0001
 Domain: communication (%)50586161−10.27<0.0001
 Domain: frequency of reporting (%)716768673.460.0005
 Overall safety grade for hospital (%)71959797−46.29<0.0001
  • *Z-statistic is the effect estimate for trend from 2012 to 2019.

  • †Positive response was defined as agree, strongly agree, most of the time, always, very good and excellent for all questions on the survey except the negatively worded questions, for which disagree and strongly disagree are considered positive responses.