Table 1

Baseline characteristics, care process measures and outcomes before (1 June 2013 to 31 may 2015), during (1 June 2015 to 31 may 2016) and after (1 June 2016 to 31 may 2017) the introduction of the care bundle at Salford Royal Hospital

BeforeDuringAfterP value
N=353N=265N=242
Baseline factors
Female, n (%)186 (52.7)127 (47.9)128 (52.9)0.422
Age, mean (SD)66.9 (16.2)66.1 (17.1)69.2 (14.9)0.078
GCS, median (IQR)14 (11–15)14 (11–15)14 (11–15)0.472
modified Rankin Scale score, n (%)0.027
 0218 (61.8)173 (65.3)183 (75.6)
 140 (11.3)28 (10.6)22 (9.1)
 228 (7.9)18 (6.8)8 (3.3)
 338 (10.8)33 (12.5)22 (9.1)
 422 (6.2)10 (3.8)7 (2.9)
 57 (2.0)3 (1.1)0 (0.0)
IVH, n (%)124 (35.1)98 (37.0)75 (32.6)0.591
ICH volume, median (IQR)14.0 (5.4–38.5)15.2 (5.0–42.4)18.4 (5.9–42.3)0.405
Location, n (%)(1 missing)0.252
 Infratentorial37 (10.5)32 (12.1)28 (11.6)
 Lobar98 (27.8)82 (30.9)88 (36.5)
 Deep218 (61.8)151 (57.0)125 (51.9)
Taking anticoagulant, n (%)47 (13.3)36 (13.6)28 (11.6)0.761
Taking antiplatelet, n (%)68 (19.3)52 (19.6)56 (23.1)0.474
Hypertension, n (%)157 (44.6)
(1 missing)
142 (53.6)112 (46.7)
(2 missing)
0.078
Diabetes, n (%)39 (11.1)
(1 missing)
41 (15.5)35 (14.6)
(2 missing)
0.235
Systolic BP, mean (SD)171 (34.8)
(11 missing)
169 (35.4)
(8 missing)
165 (33.4)
(25 missing)
0.079
Onset to arrival (h), med (IQR)2.8 (1.5–8.6)6.7 (2.2–15.6)5.8 (1.8–15.9)<0.001
Care Process Measures
 DNR order <24 hour, n (%)97 (27.5)47 (17.7)39 (16.1)<0.001
 Critical care admission <72 hour, n (%)65 (18.4)76 (28.7)72 (29.8)<0.001
Door-to-needle time for anticoagulant reversal (mins), median (IQR)109 (67–151)
(1 missing)
119 (79–199)76 (0–163)0.110
Door-to-target time for BP lowering (mins), median (IQR)718 (334–1761)
(17 missing)
237 (114–887)
(8 missing)
138 (90–311)
(3 missing)
<0.001
Door-to-first enteral hypertensive time (mins), median (IQR)28 (16–47)23 (14–43)25 (13–44)0.386
Repeat scan within 6 hours of END, n (%)43/100 (43.0)10/43 (23.3)18/69 (26.1)0.020
Palliative care <72 hours, n (%)38 (10.8)18 (6.8)17 (7.0)0.135
Outcomes
 END <48 hours, n (%)100 (28.4)
(1 missing)
43 (16.2)69 (28.5)<0.001
 Died within 30 days, n (%)99 (28.0)57 (21.5)38 (15.7)0.002
  • P values ‹ 0.05 are shown in bold.

  • BP, blood pressure; DNR, do-not-resuscitate; END, early neurological decline; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; ICH, intracerebral haemorrhage; IVH, intraventricular haemorrhage.