Table 1

Description of the study cohort

VariableCohort, n=120 (unless specified)
Mean (SD) age, years77 (11)
Female, n (%)65 (54)
Language spoken, n (%)
 English, unilingual65 (54)
 Cantonese, unilingual16 (13)
 English/Cantonese/Mandarin, bilingual14 (12)
 Mandarin, unilingual7 (6)
 Punjabi, unilingual7 (6)
 Other (various)7 (6)
 Tagalog, unilingual4 (3)
Health literacy
 REALM-65 score 6 or less, failed19/40 (48%)
 3 Brief Questions, failed36/45 (80%)
 STIHLS 13/15 or less, failed0/5 (0%)
Medication adherence, Morisky Medication Adherence Score (MMAS-8)*
 Less than 6, low adherence16/45 (36%)
 6 to less than 8, medium adherence15/45 (33%)
Lives alone and 70 years or more34/101 (34%)
Picks up prescriptions themselves36/61 (59%)
  • *The MMAS, Morisky Medication Adherence Scale and Morisky are trademarks of Donald E Morisky, and may be used only with permission. All rights reserved. Use of the MMAS-8 is protected by US copyright laws. Permission to use the MMAS scales is required. Reproduction and distribution of the MMAS is protected by US copyright laws, A license agreement to use the scale is available from: Donald E Morisky, ScD, ScM, MSPH, Professor, 2020 Glencoe Ave, Venice, California 90 291-4007, 2007 Donald E Morisky.