Table 3

Risk factor, functional capacity, EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) data for participants attending supervised sessions who completed all available assessments

NService entryService exit presurgery3 months post surgeryEntry to exitExit to postsurgery follow-up
Non-smokers, n (%)2420 (83)21 (87.5)20 (83)N/AN/A
Alcohol consumption, n (%)
 0 units/week2310 (43)15 (65)13 (57)N/AN/A
 ≤14 units/week19 (83)20 (87)22 (96)N/AN/A
Physically active*
 Aerobic, n (%)244 (17)18 (75)15 (62.5)N/AN/A
 Muscle strengthening, n (%)0 (0)21 (87.5)7 (29)N/AN/A
 Aerobic and muscle, n (%)0 (0)18 (75)7 (29)N/AN/A
Body mass index (kg/m2)2430.3 (5.2)30.0 (5.2)N/A−0.3 (−0.8 to 0.2)N/A
 Range 20–35, n (%)20 (83)21 (87.5)N/AN/AN/A
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)20147 (18)142 (17)N/A−6 (−12 to 0)N/A
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)2087 (8)83 (7)N/A−4 (−8 to 0)N/A
6 min walk distance (m)18444 (177)479 (155)N/A35 (−5 to 76)N/A
EQ-5D utility index†250.535 (0.375)0.643 (0.338)0.778 (0.299)0.108 (−0.023 to 0.240)0.244 (0.049 to 0.438)
EQ-VAS‡2568 (16)68 (17)76 (19)0 (−4 to 5)8 (1 to 16)
HADS-A§33
 Score, mean (SD)5.5 (4.8)5.4 (5.1)4.4 (5.0)−0.1 (−1.8 to 1.5)−1.0 (−2.3 to 0.2)
 Any anxiety symptoms (score 8‒21), n (%)10 (30)8 (24)9 (27)N/AN/A
 Anxiety (score 11‒21), n (%)6 (18)5 (15)6 (18)N/AN/A
HADS-D§33
 Score, mean (SD)4.6 (4.3)3.8 (3.9)2.5 (3.7)−0.8 (−1.9 to 0.3)−1.3 (−2.1 to −0.5)
 Any depressive symptoms (score 8‒21), n (%)6 (18)2 (6)1 (3)N/AN/A
 Depression (score 11‒21), n (%)3 (9)1 (3)1 (3)N/AN/A
  • Data are presented as mean (SD) or mean (95% CI).

  • *Defined as meeting WHO guidelines for physical activity.30

  • †EQ-5D utility scores range from −0.594 to 1, with higher scores indicating a better health status.

  • ‡EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS) scores range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating a better health status.

  • §Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale—Anxiety Subscale Score (HADS-A) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale—Depression Subscale Score (HADS-D) range from 0 to 21, with higher scores indicating more severe symptoms.

  • N/A, not applicable.