Table 1

Modified surgical care quality tool implemented in this study

Institute Of Medicine measures
SafeEffectivePatient-centredTimelyEfficientEquitable
Donabedian frameworkStructureMorbidity and mortality conferenceAttending surgeon present (proxy for provider density)Travel time to hospitalPatient median income to catchment population
ProcessSafe surgery checklist useProcedure densityUse of consentTime from ED arrival to non-elective abdominal surgeryDaily OR usage
OutcomePOMRReadmission rates within 30 days (proxy for caesarean section rate)Patient hospital satisfaction questionnaireFollow-up planCatastrophic patient-reported expenditure
  • ED, emergency department; IOM, Institute of Medicine; OR, operating room; POMR, perioperative mortality rate.