Table 2

Overview of the intervention period and its stages

StageTime
Pre-intervention2 monthsBaseline audits of appropriate urinary catheterisation
Baseline audits of documented physician order
PDSA 1Months 1–6Personal abilities
Structural abilities
Education
Create a consensus-based appropriate catheterisation criterion
Adapt Leis et al algorithm
Visual cues ‘reminder stickers on urinary catheters’ collection bags’
PDSA 2Months
7–12
Personal motivation
Personal abilities
Social motivation
Social abilities
Structural motivation
Structural abilities
Huddles
Sharing stories
Education
Nurse champion was employed
Physician champion was employed
Huddles
Recognition by management
Presenting to quality committees
Medical directive launched
Reporting back results
Visual cues ‘wall posters’
  • Additional interventions were added with each subsequent stage.

  • PDSA, Plan-Do-Study-Act.