Table 1

Studies evaluating the effect of video review on provided care (PICOS)

StudyComparator groupVideo reviewTeam
Patient outcomeResultsRisk of bias
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(verbal feedback)
n=180ATLS*Team: Improved in timely delivery of care (ATLS) for trauma patients ISS†>20 (44/15%, p≤0.001)?++
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(video no feedback)
n=522ATLS*SurvivalTeam: Improved significantly in timely delivery of care (mean 97.5/88.6 min, p<0.01)
Patient: Mortality reduced (10.8% to 10.4%), p<0.01, By TRISS‡ No difference between groups by ISS†
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(verbal feedback)
n=24ATLS*Team: Improved significantly in 8/10 of the
ATLS checklist.
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(first of consecutive)
(last of
100 consecutive teams)
Neonatal Resuscitation Protocol*Neonatal resuscitation: No overall improvement in resuscitation score. One action ‘deep suctioning’ improved significantly (p=0.002)??++
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(first of consecutive)
(last of 45 consecutive teams)
ALS*ROSC survivalTeam: In 3/8 resuscitation tasks, the team improved significantly (p<0.001)
Survival: No improvement (survival to discharge n=2 in control group and n=1 in video group)
  • (A) Selection bias was categorised as low risk if inclusion of participants was clearly described and representative of the population.

  • (B) Performance bias was categorised as low risk if the majority of healthcare providers were included in the study and as high risk if only a small part of the team agreed to be filmed.

  • (C) Measurement bias 1 was categorised as low if a validated tool, checklist or protocol was used.

  • (D) Measurement bias 2 was categorised as low if several raters independently assessed the video and their agreement was acceptable (eg, measured by kappa or intra class correlation>0.75).

  • Information about quality items (risk of bias A-D) results in: + Adequate; ? Unclear; - Inadequate.

  • *Adherence to a protocol or clinical guideline, for example, ATLS (Advanced Trauma Life Support), ALS (Advanced Life Support for cardiac arrest).

  • †ISS: (Injury Severity Score) is an anatomical scoring system that provides an overall score for patients with multiple injuries.

  • ‡TRISS: The probability of survival (Ps) of a patient from the ISS and RTS using a formula 68.

  • PICOS, Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome and Study design; ROSC, return of spontaneous circulation.