Table 4

Evidence-based care as observed around the time of birth

ActivitiesOverallDHUHCP value
Assessment at admissionn=317n=136n=181
 Blood pressure monitored52.459.647.00.064
 Pulse counted22.110.330.9<0.001
 Abdomen examined48.647.149.70.472
 Fetal heart rate monitored14.86.621.0<0.001
 Temperature measured1.
 Urine assessed1.
 Per-vaginal examination conducted93.190.495.00.272
 All of the above examinations received000
During the first stage of labourn=272n=111n=161
 Started partograph for monitoring labour000
 Women examined for vitals in labour ward91.589.293.20.060
During the third stage of labourn=297n=141n=156
 Oxytocin given as part of AMTSL82.594.371.8<0.001
 Uterine massage immediately after delivery60.358.961.50.491
Care of newborns for all live birthsn=287n=132n=155
 Spontaneous breathing assessed90.
 Dried immediately and thoroughly97.698.596.80.349
 Put on skin to skin immediately after birth27.
 Delayed cord clamping (after 1 min)69.375.064.50.210
 Cutting cord with sterile blade61.070.552.90.002
 Breastfeeding initiated within 1 hour62.076.549.7<0.001
 Chlorhexidine applied to umbilical cord57.
 Birth weight taken75.686.466.5<0.001
 All seven components of immediate newborn care* practiced17.418.216.80.979
Management of birth asphyxia†n=77n=30n=47
 External stimulation or resuscitation given97.496.797.90.746
  • *Immediate newborn care practices: assessment of spontaneous breathing, drying immediately and thoroughly, skin-to-skin contact, delayed cord cutting, cutting cord with sterile blade, initiation of breast feeding within 1 hour and application of chlorhexidine to umbilical cord.

  • †Newborn who did not cry or breathe spontaneously at birth.

  • AMTSL, active management of the third stage of labour; DH, district hospital; UHC, Upazilla health complex.