Table 2

Motivators for change

Intrinsic motivatorDescription
ValuesTo appeal to intrinsic motivations, a change must enable individual values (eg, person-centredness) to be actualised.
Perceived worthChange has perceived worth when it is considered necessary and will have tangible benefits for the individual either personally or professionally.
Extrinsic motivatorDescription
Bigger purposeThere is moral imperative to make changes that improve outcomes and meet people’s needs, often illuminated through a human rights lens for example, upholding individuals’ rights to education or health.
Government mandatePolicy provides the external authority for change and sets the criteria for success, usually through setting government-defined goals and targets.
Societal pressureSocietal pressure comes from the public and is intensified by the media, often in relation to emotive topics, who call on organisations to respond to ‘big issues’ such as neglect, unsafe practice or inequitable care provision
Service user voiceQualitative data from service users about their views of current service provision are a powerful motivator for change. Quantitative data that compare service user data (whether against an agreed standard or across areas) can motivate change by highlighting need or demonstrating effectiveness.
Research evidenceEmpirical research feeds into the policy and guidelines that stimulate improvement activity. Research evidence can motivate the need for change and directly inform how and what change is implemented. Research evidence can minimise the potential for adverse consequences and poorly thought-out change.