Table 1

Comparing types of adverse events

General sampleInpatient deathsSeverity IAdmission with adverse events
Inpatient deaths vs General patients
Adverse events per 1000 patient days
Inpatient deaths vs General patients
N (%)N (%)N (%)Exp (β)P value95% CIExp (β)P value95% CI
Hospital-associated infections 108 (33.3) 114 (42.1) 44 (51.2) 1.98 0.000 1.43 to 2.74 1.87 0.000 1.36 to 2.57
 Urinary tract infection44 (13.6)18 (6.6)2 (2.3)0.990.9650.51 to 1.900.990.9670.51 to 1.90
 Central venous catheter infection0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
 Ventilator-associated pneumonia2 (0.6)3 (1.1)1 (1.2)
 Other infections28 (8.6)25 (9.2)0 (0)
 Lower respiratory infections34 (10.5)68 (25.3)41 (47.7)3.290.0002.03 to 5.342.810.0001.76 to 4.51
Surgical complications 95 (29.3) 19 (7.0) 13 (15.1) 0.92 0.792 0.50 to 1.69 0.97 0.923 0.54 to 1.76
 Infection after surgery21 (6.5)2 (0.7)0 (0)
 Respiratory complication surgery1 (0.3)3 (1.1)1 (1.2)
 Return to surgery14 (4.3)1 (0.4)8 (9.3)
 Injury, repair or removal of organ7 (2.2)7 (2.6)3 (3.5)
 Bleeding after surgery21 (6.5)2 (0.7)1 (1.2)
 Any other operative complication31 (9.6)4 (1.5)0 (0)
 Switch in surgery0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
Bleeding and thrombosis 30 (9.3) 13 (4.8) 6 (7.0) 1.70 0.177 0.79 to 3.69 1.65 0.198 0.77 to 3.55
 Thrombosis–embolism7 (2.2)10 (3.7)4 (4.7)
 Bleeding23 (7.1)3 (1.1)2 (2.3)
Patient fall and fracture 20 (6.2) 13 (4.8) 2 (2.3) 1.71 0.204 0.75 to 3.86 1.36 0.477 0.58 to 3.17
 Patient fall16 (4.9)6 (2.2)1 (1.2)
 Fracture4 (1.2)7 (2.6)1 (1.2)
Medication harm 27 (8.3) 76 (28.0) 17 (19.8) 6.28 0.000 3.64 to 10.85 5.21 0.000 3.04 to 8.94
Obstetric harm 14 (4.3) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Pressure ulcers 11 (3.4) 25 (9.2) 0 (0) 2.17 0.059 0.97 to 4.83 2.23 0.043 1.03 to 4.85
Others 19 (5.9) 9 (3.3) 4 (4.7) 1.05 0.928 0.39 to 2.79 0.86 0.754 0.33 to 2.24
 Allergy9 (2.8)3 (1.1)0 (0)
 Medical technical harm3 (0.9)1 (0.4)1 (1.2)
 Deterioration of chronic illness2 (0.6)0 (0)1 (1.2)
 Others5 (1.5)5 (1.9)2 (2.3)
  • 23 types of adverse events aggregated into eight categories (bold text) for statistical purpose. Estimated differences using Poisson Regression adjusted for demographic variables.