Table 3

Non-EBM practices by area of care

Always/often/sometimes
N (%)
Never/rarely
N (%)
Obstetric care
 Continuous CTG in low-risk pregnancy57 (55.4)†19 (18.4)
 Restrictions to freedom of movement during labour54 (52.4)†32 (31.0)
 Restrictions to position of women choice during birth56 (54.9)†24 (23.5)
 Restrictions to oral intake (food, water) during labour without caesarean section risk*43 (41.7)†38 (36.9)
 Labour augmentation*47 (46.5)†23 (22.8)
 Instrumental delivery without indication*46 (44.7)†36 (35.0)
 Episiotomy without indication*44 (42.7)†35 (34.0)
 Kristeller manoeuvre48 (46.6)†30 (29.1)
 Caesarean section without indication*36 (35.0)45 (43.7)
 Routine pubic or perineal shaving*13 (12.7)†62 (60.8)
 Enemas*6 (5.9)71 (69.6)
Neonatal care
 Immediate cord clamping (before 1–3 min) without neonatal emergency*42 (40.7)†49 (47.6)
 Routine newborn suctioning*48 (46.2)43 (41.3)
 Early bathing and removal of the vernix within 6 hours of birth*72 (69.2)19 (18.3)
 Mother/newborn separation*51 (50.0)48 (47.1)
 Formula feeding without medical indication*41 (39.4)†54 (52.0)
  • *WHO quality  standard.

  • † Significant difference (p<0.05) by professional type in the subgroup analysis (see online supplementary table 6).

  • CTG, cardiotocography; EBM, evidence-based medicine.