Table 1

Study characteristics

AuthorYearDesignError ID methodDenominator specificationPrescription denominatorError rateDuration (weeks)SettingSettings
 (n)
Allan et al 11 1995Prospective descriptiveSecret shopperSet number1000.558Community100
Flynn et al 6 1999Prospective descriptiveReviewTime50720.0323.2Outpatient1
Flynn et al 17 2003Prospective descriptiveObservationTime44810.01740Mixed50
Rolland*16 2004Retrospective cohortSelf-reportNSNSNS2496Outpatient4
Flynn and 
Barker10
2006Prospective descriptiveObservationTime32410.0181.9Independent1
30280.0191.8Chain1
Witte and 
Dundes19
2007Prospective descriptiveSelf-reportTime12 4630.0018Community1
Flynn et al 12 2009Prospective descriptiveSecret shopperSet number1000.228Community100
LePorte et al 18 2009Before-afterReviewTime74290.0058Outpatient1
Basco et al 15 2010Retrospective cohortReviewLASA+time1 420 091<0.001312NSNS
Moniz et al 13 2011Before-afterReviewDispensing data+time5240.0348Community80
45990.0348Community260
Chinthammit14*2014RCTSelf-reportNSNSNS16Community21
  • *Not included in the meta-analysis due to lack of denominator value.

  • ID, identification; LASA, lookalike soundalike; Mixed, community and outpatient clinic settings; NS, not specified; RCT, randomised controlled trial; Time, denominator includes prescriptions within a specified time range.