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Analysis of patient safety messages delivered and received during clinical rounds
  1. Diane Levine1,2,
  2. Jaya Gadivemula2,
  3. Raya Kutaimy2,
  4. Srinivasa Kamatam2,
  5. Nagaratna Sarvadevabatla2,
  6. Prateek Lohia2
  1. 1Internal Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA
  2. 2Internal Medicine, Detroit Medical Center, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Diane Levine; dllevine{at}


Background Multiple modalities are available to introduce patient safety training to healthcare professionals. In internal medicine, clinical rounds have always played an important role in education; however, the patient safety content taught at the point of care is not well studied. We studied, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the number and nature of patient safety messages delivered by attending physicians to determine what is taught at the point of care and how well this is recognised and recalled by attending physicians, residents and medical students.

Methods This prospective mixed methods study was conducted on the medicine teaching service. Clinical rounds were audio-recorded. Immediately after rounds, attending physicians, residents and students completed a short survey card identifying the number and type of educational messages they immediately recalled teaching or hearing. Independent t-test was used to compare differences in the number of messages delivered by attendings and recalled by trainees. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare differences in messages delivered by attending physicians compared with trainees. Recordings were transcribed and analysed qualitatively for patient safety content.

Results Trainees recalled more educational messages than attendings recalled teaching in all educational domains. Safety messages comprised 17.5% of educational messages. The average number of patient safety messages recalled per session was 1.08 per attending physicians, 1.84 per resident and 2.50 per student. Residents recalled 56.4% of safety messages delivered; students recalled 76.7% of safety messages.

Conclusion Patient safety is a focus of teaching during clinical rounds and provides meaningful opportunities to train students and residents to practice safe patient care.

  • patient safety
  • medical education
  • quality improvement

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  • Contributors All authors had full access to the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: DL, PL and SK. Acquisition of data: JG, SK and NS. Analysis and interpretation of data: JG, SK, PL and DL. Drafting of the manuscript: JG, RK, SK and DL. Critical review of the manuscript for important intellectual content: all authors. Obtained funding: none. Study supervision: DL.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, conduct, reporting or dissemination plans of this research.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.

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