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Faecal immunochemical testing implementation to increase colorectal cancer screening in primary care
  1. Smita Bakhai1,
  2. Gaurav Ahluwalia1,
  3. Naren Nallapeta1,
  4. Amanpreet Mangat1,
  5. Jessica L Reynolds2
  1. 1 Department of Internal Medicine, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA
  2. 2 Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Smita Bakhai; sybakhai{at}buffalo.edu

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in USA, and CRC screening remains suboptimal. The aim of this quality improvement was to increase CRC screening in the internal medicine clinic (IMC) patients, between the ages of 50–75 years, from a baseline rate of 50%–70% over 12 months with the introduction of faecal immunochemical test (FIT) testing. We used the Plan–Do–Study–Act (PDSA) method and performed a root cause analysis to identify barriers to acceptance of CRC screening. The quality improvement team created a driver diagram to identify and prioritise change ideas. We developed a process flow map to optimise opportunities to improve CRC screening. We performed eight PDSA cycles. The major components of interventions included: (1) leveraging health information technology; (2) optimising team work, (3) education to patient, physicians and IMC staff, (4) use of patient navigator for tracking FIT completion and (5) interactive workshops for the staff and physicians to learn motivational interview techniques. The outcome measure included CRC screening rates with either FIT or colonoscopy. The process measures included FIT order and completion rates. Data were analysed using a statistical process control and run charts. Four hundred and seven patients visiting the IMC were offered FIT, and 252 (62%) completed the test. Twenty-two (8.7%) of patients were FIT positive, 14 of those (63.6%) underwent a subsequent diagnostic colonoscopy. We achieved 75% CRC screening with FIT or colonoscopy within 12 months and exceeded our goal. Successful strategies included engaging the leadership, the front-line staff and a highly effective multidisciplinary team. For average-risk patients, FIT was the preferred method of screening. We were able to sustain a CRC screening rate of 75% during the 6-month postproject period. Sustainable annual FIT is required for successful CRC screening.

  • primary care
  • quality improvement
  • root cause analysis

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Footnotes

  • Contributors SYB: study oversight, study concept and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting of manuscript, critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content and finalisation of manuscript. GA and NN: acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data. AM: acquisition of data. JR: interpretation of data, drafting of manuscript, critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content and finalisation of manuscript.

  • Funding ACS for the CHANGE grant to increase CRC screening (SB). Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under award Number UL1TR001412.

  • Disclaimer The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval This study was approved by the Human Subjects Institutional Review Board (HSIRB) of the University at Buffalo and was exempt from patient consent. The work was deemed a quality improvement project and not a study on human subjects.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement An electronic database was setup; contact authors for access.

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